Friday, January 18, 2019

Stuc Pierre (Estuco de Piedra)


Por cortesia de Plâtres Vieujot
El Stuc Pierre, es un acabado de enlucido a veces hecho con moldes que imita la piedra ashlar. Está hecho con una mezcla de yeso, cal hidratada (opcional) y un árido pulverizado de la misma piedra original a la que se pretender imitar.

Historia

Casa de Sallust
alrededor de 100 AC
Aunque existen numerosos ejemplos de imitación de piedra hechos con estuco entre varias  civilizaciones antiguas, fueron los Griegos y los Romanos quienes perfeccionaron este arte. Los griegos, desarrollaron técnicas de estuco para emular directamente su monumental arquitectura de piedra. Por lo contrario, los romanos, mostraron una interpretación más realista en desafío a las normas griegas. Los Romanos manifestaron una preferencia por su uso en ornamentos interiores, y aprovecharon la ventaja de la libertad física que ofrece el estuco para crear decoraciones que incluso no serían posibles de realizar con piedra.

En la europa medieval, el arte de Stuc Pierre disminuyó e incluso llegó casi a desaparecer por completo debido a que fué trascendido por la imitación a la piedra con técnicas de pintura al temple y a la cal. Pero durante el renacimiento italiano empezó un resurgimiento de la imitación de la piedra con estuco de cal. Un ejemplo notable es el Palazzo del té del siglo XVI, en el exterior de Mantua, donde se desarrollaron a la perfección cornisas, frontones y una variedad de adornos en homenaje al prestigioso travertino romano de los Palacios de la antigüedad.

Palazzo del Té

Por cortesia de Plâtres Vieujot
Francia pronto lo siguió, en los siglos XVII y XVIII. Stuc pierre, basado en yeso predominaba en los interiores públicos durante el siglo XIX adornando áreas comunitarias como entradas, halls o escaleras. No solo creaba la ilusión de una arquitectura clásica monumental en piedra, sinó que también proporcionaba la durabilidad, una durabilidad comparable que ha permitido disfrutar de muchas instalaciones presentes hasta el dia de hoy.

Por cortesia de Plâtres Vieujot
Debido a la amplia disponibilidad de yeso en toda Francia, Stuc Pierre era de uso común en regiones tan diversas como la costa de Normandía, Provenza, Borgoña, los Pirineos y la Costa Azul. Particularmente en París y en la Île-de-France, no es raro ver ejemplos existentes de fachadas representadas completamente en Stuc Pierre o en combinación con Stuc Brique, una técnica similar en la que los agregados de piedra pulverizada se reemplazan por polvo de ladrillo. Stuc Pierre fué tradicionalmente aplicado sobre un soporte de ladrillo o mampostería. Con el advenimiento de la construcción de hierro y acero a principios del siglo XX, Stuc Pierre se usaría cada vez más sobre la malla para preservar la apariencia de una fachada arquitectónica clásica.

Mise en OEuvre , Aplicación

El primer paso es la selección precisa de la mezcla. Para trabajos de restauración, se diseña el mortero para el tipo de piedra a imitar. La nueva construcción permite una gran libertad artística. A diferencia de la cal o el cemento, el yeso es un material autoaglutinante. Agregados, tales como piedra triturada,
ladrillo o arena no son necesarios para el rendimiento del revestimiento, pero se agregan para los fines de la invención. Se puede también agregar cuentas de vidrio, serrín, conchas marinas y fibra de lino para la expresión artística.

Al igual que con cualquier revestimiento, la limpieza y la estabilidad del soporte son muy importantes. Cuando se utiliza en el exterior, hay que prestar atención a los diferentes diseños arquitectónicos. Los aleros, los entablados y las hiladas voladas, son importantes para eliminar el agua de la fachada y evitar la transmisión localizada. Las superficies horizontales que por lo general ocurren en los frontones, las aberturas de las ventanas y puertas deben estar correctamente a nivel. Una capa freática, como por ejemplo; una piedra densa e impermeable en la base, evita que el agua suba a la acción capilar. La adherencia a unas pocas soluciones sencillas y muy exitosas hace que un trabajo hermoso perdure por muchas generaciones.

La mezcla se puede hacer a mano, con una mezcladora o con una hormigonera. La aplicación exterior se puede hacer en una sola capa o en capas sucesivas con un mínimo espesor total de 30mm. En interiores, el espesor se reduce a un mínimo de 12mm-19mm. Es posible la aplicación sobre albañilería, sobre listones de madera o sobre paneles de yeso. En todos los casos, se pueden utilizar las herramientas tradicionales de estuco y yeso, como la paleta, la llana, el fratás, regles, herramientas de esquina, etc. Hay diferentes diseños de acabado exteriores, cornisas hechas in situ, molduras y ornamentos.

En el acabado de estuco de piedra se confía en el artesano experto para desbloquear el gran potencial artístico del material. Una cuchilla de acero francesa o paleta Berthelet se usa tradicionalmente en la superficie, para quitar el exceso de mortero y nivelar la pared, exponiendo así los hermosos agregados que contiene. Se pueden utilizar tratamientos adicionales como el lavado, el pincelado, el pulido o el lijado para lograr los efectos deseados. Para el corte de uniones se utiliza una herramienta de la vía del ferrocarril tradicional o Chemin de Fer. Las juntas pueden dejarse abiertas y lisas en un patrón Ashlar o rellenarse con material para dar un efecto de mortero.

Sostenibilidad

Por cortesia de Wright Architects
El Stuc Pierre es valorado en el mercado de la sostenibilidad. En la UE, el estuco de imitación de piedra se usa comúnmente en la construcción de balas de paja y de cal y cáñamo. El yeso tiene una energía de fabricación relativamente baja, producida al calentar el yeso crudo a aproximadamente 300°F. Las adiciones de aglutinantes de arcilla, fibras de cáñamo y agregados recuperados o reciclados pueden reducir aún más la energía incorporada. Tradicionalmente, un pequeño porcentaje de cal hidratada se añade a la mezcla aportando alcalinidad y resistencia natural al moho. Todos los materiales utilizados en el estuco piedra son minerales o renovables, no tóxicos y libres de VOC. Además, la porosidad del recubrimiento garantiza una cobertura transpirable que aprovecha al máximo la transferencia del calor y reduce puentes térmicos.

Conclusión

Me gustaría agradecer a Joël Puisais, de The Compagnons du Devoir y a mi compañero Marc Potin de Plâtres Vieujot por las referencias históricas de esta publicación. Plâtres Vieujot fue fundado en 1880 y sigue siendo el único fabricante privado de yeso en Francia. Puede encontrar más información en su página web: http://www.platre.com/platre/


Escrito por Patrick Webb
Traducido por Anna Castilla Vila 

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

The Ethical Craftsman

Themis - Titaness of the Moral Law
This essay is bound to be unpopular, extolling as it does the counter-culture virtues of judgement, discrimination and responsibility. Ethos, the etymological ancestor of our English word 'ethic', was a very important concept for the ancient Greeks. Ethos was the self-cultivated character of the individual that accorded with the custom of his place. By knowing where or from what family a man was from you could ascertain much about him. Yet it was never the whole story; the individual retained agency, the important choices that would ultimately praise or condemn him in the eyes of his fellowman.

Consciously acknowledged or not, ethics is the branch of philosophy that all humans are most concerned with. Whereas metaphysics concerns itself with questions of origin and existence and epistemology as to what constitutes knowledge or truth, ethics places to one side such abstract notions. Rather, it's emotional and dynamic, it seeks to act in the world, taking up the challenge of how things ought to be in the face of what they are. Ethics are of vital interest to the craftsman in two significant ways. First, how the work of our hands ought to appeal to the senses and secondly, what responsibilities we have towards ourselves, other individuals, our culture and nature herself.

Aesthetics

How ought that which we create appeal to the senses? This is a question that chefs, musicians, and craftsmen, essentially all artists and makers grapple with. How are the dishes we prepare to smell or taste, the music we perform to sound, the crafted work of our hands to feel and look? These are not trivial questions...chefs, musicians and craftsmen invest years of practise, garnering experience in cultivating our sensory capacity for such nuances. In incremental steps we must first train the discerning palates, noses, ears or eyes for only then can we hope to develop and align the skills to produce that which might please the senses. Such pursuit of sensual delight must include a great deal of frustration, a virtual arms race of dissatisfaction that contains self-judgement from within and judgement from masters and patrons from without. Oh yes, your work will assuredly be judged and quite possibly found wanting. Disentangling yourself from the judgement against your work or your performance is no straightforward matter.

Apprentice Pillar - Rosslyn Chapel
In the visual arts of painting and sculpture as well as architecture there arose, perhaps initially as a mere reflection of an exercised instinct, something that grew into a self-consciously foggy notion of what our creations might ought to look like: the beautiful and the sublime. It was held that the beauty or sublimity of such visual arts were but a pale imitation of the source, nature herself. Beauty was emergent, to be revealed or discovered such as in the beauty of a young girl's smile or the beauty of a rose unfurled. Beauty held a certain delicacy, was approachable, drew you in. Sublimity on the other hand commanded reverence of another sort, that of awe. The sublimity of a mountain, great ocean or a field of stars leaves one dumbstruck; an encounter with the totally incomprehensible that nevertheless remains utterly sensible. Although expressed in painting and sculpture, no art has the capacity to convey sublimity like architecture. A majestic work of architecture such as a Gothic cathedral may hold us in awe, remind us of our smallness and mortality yet we simultaneously see in it the hands of man, that as 'man' we are participants in its greatness, it stands as a testimony of our own nobility.

Can a work of visual art reveal both beauty and sublimity together? Much in the same way that a delicate flower can blossom upon the craggy slope of a jagged mountain and a colorful, whirring hummingbird can hover among the mists of a thunderous waterfall, the beautiful and the sublime often indeed coexist. Furthermore, so as to command the most profound impression upon the senses they should do so. Architecture for example is only enhanced as a sublime sensual experience when judiciously combined with the beauty of painting, sculpture, ornament and handcraft.

However, during the Age of Reason the aforementioned way of feeling came under intellectual protest and underwent a reformation denying the traditional notions of the beautiful and the sublime in favour of a way of thinking about the senses, a need to define beauty and the sublime explicitly, to apply intellectual rigour to the senses, providing rational justification for them. One conclusion of this urgent need might best be summed up in the now cliché slogan "beauty is in the eye of the beholder", that is to say that our senses amount to nothing more than our own perceptions, we've no access to the minds of others or a greater reality outside our own head. Modern art and architecture awkwardly embraced the Modern philosophy which led to a baffling new aesthetic, a theory that denied its own possibility of appealing to the senses at all! Modern works of art and architecture were to befit the modern man, all concept and functional programme to be comprehended and rationally articulated, breaking with the traditional emphasis on illiciting feelings of beauty and sublimity.

Nevertheless, this Modernist aesthetic in practise followed two paths ultimately related to one another. The first was sensory deprivation: white or monochromatic environments, linear and geometric forms, smooth and polished surfaces, a "clean" aesthetic cleansed of any organic presence such as living things or crafted objects in favour of industrially produced metals, glass and plastics. The second approach has been a willful assault on the senses, art and architecture that is deliberately designed to be absurd, to shock, to offend, in some cases to uncover the ugliness, violence, malevolence of the human condition, a perverse celebration of our worst attributes writ large. The Modernist art and architecture movement has been largely successful in eliminating the beautiful and the sublime from academic discourse and professional pracitse; however, by replacing them with an aesthetic of sensory deprivation and sensory assault they've largely determined for society what we ought to have instead, the really real as it were: pain based sensory experiences.

JOKESTER 2 - Art Basel Miami
 
Morality

What responsibility do we have to have towards ourselves, our fellowman and nature in the very process of that which we bring into existence? This is the type of inquiry that makes the art and architectural community very uncomfortable and even reactionary. Questions of morality are essentially bad form and mingling them with questions of aesthetics, well that's strictly taboo. However, if one were to press the issue the answers regarding moral responsibility seem to converge upon: seemingly no responsibility whatsoever.

One problem confronting morality is an extension of the previously considered problem of aesthetics. If the axiomatic presupposition holds that our senses amount to nothing more than our own perceptions, that we've no access to the minds of others or a greater reality outside our own head, then it must follow that there's no basis for a shared aesthetics or a shared morality. Taken to its extreme results in a radical skepticism, a feeling of total isolation and complete detachment from anyone, any reality at all outside one's own perceptions.

As it turns out radical skepticism is not a good recipe for staying alive so we tend to be confronted with it only as a theoretical concept with more tempered versions of skepticism promoted in practise. Prominent among these is what we might call relative morality. The general premise being that I've my morality and you've your morality but there can be no such thing as a shared morality between us. This moral relativism is often amplified to groups identified by race, religion, gender or any other way we might carve up humanity. The focus is on division and separation where we see a repeated pattern on the meta-individual, group level. It plays out something like we have our morality and you all have your morality but there can be no such thing as a shared morality between us as our perceptions are shaped by our enculturation and life experience which represents an impassable chasm with those who don't share the same time, place, sex, race, status, culture, etc. There's a real denial of the possibility of the power of human empathy at work here. The belief is that we can't communicate effectively despite any desire to do so; no matter what you attempt to convey what will in fact be heard, perceived will be shaped by the others intransigent world view.

Another position regarding morality is that it is nothing more than an emergent property of biology and evolution. We're just role playing out our instinctive drives. A kind of materialist morality where all behaviour is reduced to instinct and could be accounted for if we just know more about biology which we expect to in time. This view of morality has a good deal of scientific data and research lending support, even if the scientists themselves hold a more nuanced view. It's not to be denied of course that we have instincts and that they can be quite powerful. However, I would contend that what we often experience are instincts that are in conflict with one another which is where morality actually emerges. When confronted with a moral dilemma, such as saving a drowning stranger i.e., that part of us that suppresses a stronger instinct, "self-preservation" in favour of a weaker one, "offer help" can not itself be an instinct but a higher function that judges between them.

Yet another commonplace view of morality is that it is shaped almost entirely by social convention and societal organisation. Religions, schools and cultures enforce norms whereas governments enact laws that dictate individual behaviour. In the socialist model the former responsibility that the individual might have had for himself, towards his fellowman and nature is largely depersonalised and taken up by the state. Whereas in the more capitalist models responsibility tends to be externalised and outsourced to the marketplace. Most all modern states utilise some compromise between these two approaches of mass societal organisation. What they have in common is that they both wrest moral responsibility away the individual, either by centralising it in the state or distributing it in the marketplace by means of laws, policies and codes. This last view is more descriptive of how things are than normative, saying how they ought to be.

The aesthetic questions of how their work ought to look or otherwise appeal to the senses are quite naturally a primary concern of traditional craftsmen. However, alongside this come other, moral responsibilities. The craft itself is a tradition, literally something of value passed across the threshold. So there is an obligation of stewardship, a respect for the craft even in the manner you practise it, an honesty in one's dealings and upholding a standard of quality, essentially an obligation fulfilled to the preceding generations. The tradition acts as an initiation into personal growth, the cultivation of discernment, the ability to use good judgement rather than a conditioning to perform work rigidly according to fixed norms or standards.

Traditional craftsmen are likely to enter into conflict with more expeditious means particularly those typical of industrial production that are willing to compromise quality, constrain creativity or forego investment in the next generation of craftsmen. To that last point, the craftsman carries an obligation to future generations in the form of apprentices, to pass on both the technical skills and the respect for the craft itself, the fullness of the tradition. Materials are not simply a means to an end form for the craftsman, rather there is an intimate relationship with timber, stone, plaster, iron; wastefulness is among the greatest of offences. Best if one can use local materials, adapted to local needs by local craftsmen. As I've written about elsewhere the Master craftsman becomes the greatest of ministers: to apprentices, to the craft, to the community and to those who are securing his services. Being a traditional craftsman is a moral life of obligation and responsibility and in that is found rich meaning and connection.

Courtesy of Finch Woodworks

The Abolition of Craftsmen

Industrial production has largely displaced and diminished traditional craft globally. What moral responsibility if any does society have towards the craftsman?

Perhaps just give it enough space to grow. That seems to be a tall order in a technological age. We're at the point today where most academics and professionals in architectural circles are convinced that we don't need craft or craftsmen anymore, their hands and heads can be replaced and at greater efficiency. They're not altogether wrong, at least from a certain point of view.

The ability for industry machinery to replace craftsmen has increased steadily since the early 19th century. Those early efforts placed significant constraints on what could be designed and produced. However, after two centuries of technological advancement computer-numerical-controlled (CNC) utilise waterjets, lasers and various bits and bores to produce almost any form imaginable with a level of nuance and detail approaching and in some cases exceeding that of the human hand. 3D printing is the latest technological breakthrough that promises to clear the field entirely.

Semi-Automated Mason, SAM100 - 3,000 bricks a day
So much for the hand but surely complex design tasks, the head is safe? Hundreds of billions of dollars have been poured from the public and private coffers into artificial intelligence and algorithmic design development. Almost any human work activity physical or mental can be codified and programmed with sufficient monetary and increasingly digital resources. Artificial intelligence has reached the point where it can speed the conversion along, helping us immensely towards our own redundancy. Even professional fields such as journalism, science, medicine, legal, accounting and ironically computer technology are beginning to see the code written on the virtual firewall.

Why this acceleration towards the automation of practically every conceivable human task be it physical or mental? Some claim it is the only way to address the problem of large numbers. Such automation is the only way to care for the exponential increase in population growth; furthermore, having machines labour and think on our behalf will yield corollary benefits, the freedom from constraint to fulfill our desires, to pursue happiness! That's the sales pitch anyway...I'm not so convinced. Author and moral philosopher C.S. Lewis was of the opinion that every declaration of man's conquest of nature was in reality a few men's conquest over many men with nature as her bludgeoning instrument. I think history has more tended to support his contention than not.

Let's look at the number situation from a different angle. What's the one resource that we have today in superabundance like no time in history? Human beings. And they're super efficient too, running on only 2000 calories day of 100% bio-renewable fuel. Does having billions of young people not just unemployed but unemployable, passive and dependent upon the state and large corporations sound like a secure future to you?* Perhaps the solution to the "problem" of large numbers is to allow the possibility for responsibility and self-reliance for these next generations. Perhaps they would be better served being prepared to be active participants in their future not just along for the algorithmically determined ride. A future where they create not only with their hands and design with their head but rely upon their figurative heart, that unprogrammable uniquely human capacity for moral choice, for what their life ought to be and bestow over the threshold the same possibility for their progeny. I expect that if such an alternate future is possible, craftsmen will have an important role in shaping it.

*Note to politicians and despots: employed craftsman, being active and independent, seldom foment trouble


Contributed by Patrick Webb

Monday, December 31, 2018

El Tadelakt Marroquí


Esgrafiado hecho por el maestro "Mâalem"
Enigmático, exótico, artesanal, rústico, seductor... Estos son solo algunos de los adjetivos que intentan describir la esencia del Tadelakt, el revestimiento de cal de Marrakech que en los últimos años ha fascinado el mundo del diseño occidental, primero en Francia (lógicamente por su habla francesa y ser Marruecos un destino popular de vacaciones. Además, tengo que admitir que muchos diseñadores franceses tienen un gusto impecable) y, posteriormente, en toda la UE y EE. UU.

Hace algunos años viajé a Marruecos con un grupo organizado desde Venecia por el verdadero maestro italiano, Franco Saladino. Fuimos a estudiar la aplicación y la fabricación del Tadelakt. Inmediatamente me enamoré de la comida, la música, el "terroir", la cultura, y sus revestimientos. Uno de mis compañeros del sector en los EE. UU. Ryan Chivers, realizó una visita similar y también quedó cautivado. Ryan y yo haremos nuestro mejor esfuerzo para compartir lo que hemos aprendido sobre su historia, fabricación y aplicación.

Historia

Aljibe cubierto en Tadelakt, Palacio Al Badi
La palabra Tadelakt es una transcripción del árabe " تدلاكت ", que significa "masajeado" o, alternativamente, "frotado", "amasado". El nombre es significativo y un gran indicio de lo que se trata Tadelakt. Sí, es un tipo de enlucido que tiene ciertas propiedades, pero es una práctica muy importante que involucra un poco de palizón en su proceso. La calcinación de la cal para hacer mortero ha estado ocurriendo durante mucho tiempo en el norte de África. Sabemos que en Egipto, por ejemplo, estaban utilizando variosas revestimientos de yeso y cal para la construcción de las pirámides y otras estructuras que datan de hace 5.000 años. Sin embargo, fue bajo la dinastía "beréber". Almorávide del siglo XI, con sede en Marrakech, cuando los artesanos comenzaron a usar el método Tadelakt para dar una acabado a la cal producida localmente para hacer los aljibes reales impermeables.

La piedra caliza utilizada para producir Tadelakt proviene de la zona este de las montañas del Alto Atlas. La piedra caliza es arcillosa, lo que significa que contiene un porcentaje relativamente alto de arcilla. Además, hay una pequeña infiltración de sílice amorfa que hace que la cal Tadelakt sea ligeramente hidráulica. Combinando las propiedades naturales del material con los métodos tradicionales de aplicación del tadelakt, se consiguen unas cualidades impermeables que a se usaron simultáneamente a modo decorativo en fachadas exteriores, para hacer vasijas, y en las paredes interiores de los conocidos "hammams" o casas de baños públicos.

Elaboración

La fosa abierta
Las "fábricas" de Tadelakt se encuentran en las faldas de las montañas del Alto Atlas. Las fábricas son poco más que un terreno plano de tierra con una serie de fosas cilíndricas forradas con ladrillos de adobe. Cada fosa tiene un túnel estrecho de entrada que conduce al suelo de la fosa para que se pueda agregar combustible durante la cocción. Entonces, se levanta un bóveda bien hecha a mano sobre la fosa. La piedra caliza se descompone en trozos más o menos del tamaño de las piezas de un pomelo. No hay ningún tipo de mecánica, por lo que el trabajo se realiza todo a mano, rompiendo cada piedra una a una. Es muy importante que el tamaño de las piedras a cocer sea el mismo para una cocción uniforme. Si las piedras a quemar son demasiado grandes, el carbono no se eliminará completamente. Si son demasiado pequeñas habrá una vitrificación de los silicatos. De cualquier modo, siempre puedes terminar con muchos pedazos inservibles.

La bóveda erguida, listo para hornear
Este es precisamente el proceso descrito por Vitruvio y utilizado por los romanos hace dos milenios para producir el mortero de cal. Los árabes conservaron muchos de los antiguos textos romanos y durante su edad de oro, tradujeron muchos documentos del latín y el griego al Árabe. Tadelakt, es esencialmente un cemento romano que utiliza la piedra caliza local de Marrakech. El combustible muy eficaz para el horno proviene de los campos circundantes, un arbusto abundante con alto contenido en aceites naturales, este se colecta unas semanas antes y se deja secar. La temperatura dentro del horno se eleva a aproximadamente 950 ° C (1750 ° F), y se mantiene durante al menos 24 horas bajo la supervisión cuidadosa de un hornero experimentado. Por supuesto que no hay termómetro. Se determina la temperatura observando el color de la llama y el olor del humo.

el hornero inspeccionando la bóveda
Después de un día completo de enfriamiento, la bóveda se desmonta. Si la piedra caliza se ha cocido correctamente, las piedras se convertirán en polvo rociando ligeramente con agua. La reacción es rápida produciendo una buena cantidad de calor, aunque no tanto como con la cal viva. Finalmente, se somete a una serie de tamices para eliminar los trozos demasiado cocidos o sin cocer. Esto se hace típicamente al aire libre por dos hombres que sostienen y sacuden un tamiz manual grande de aproximadamente 0.75m x 2m, y con un ayudante que tira la cal en él. La cal Tadelakt permanecerá altamente activa si se empaqueta y se almacena rápidamente para evitar su carbonatación con el aire.

Aplicación

La aplicación de Tadelakt es un proceso con varios pasos. La esencia de Tadelakt hábilmente aplicada es el tiempo. Comprender cuándo realizar cada paso es algo que es difícil de describir y requiere experiencia. Con el Tadelakt, hay muchas maneras de lograr el mismo resultado, dependiendo de las herramientas y los materiales que se utilicen. Esta descripción pretende describir el proceso de Tadelakt como se hace tradicionalmente en Marrakech.

Herramientas

Cortesia de Franco Saladino
Las herramientas tradicionales utilizadas en Marruecos, son muy sencillas. Una paleta grande de albañil se usa para mezclar. Se utiliza un cubo de agua y un cepillo grande para mojar las paredes. La paleta de albañil se usa en combinación con el "Taloche", un fratás de madera que se puede usar como superficie para sostener o aplicar el material. Una vez que se ha aplicado el material, el fratás de madera se utiliza para aplanar y rellenar la superficie. La paleta de albañil se usa para alisar inicialmente la superficie. El "Galet" es una piedra de río dura que generalmente es plana y lisa por un lado. Se utilizan varias piezas de plástico para un alisado final. Una de ellas, es una pieza plana rígida con un borde pulido. También se utiliza una lámina de plástico plegada para suavizar formas redondas.

Mezcla

El Tadelakt es tradicionalmente mezclado a mano. El material se tamiza a través de un tamiz fino para eliminar las piezas más grandes de agregado. El polvo se agrega al agua y se mezcla bien con la paletade albañil. El material se mezcla sorprendentemente aguado teniendo en cuenta la succión relativamente alta de los sustratos tradicionales. El pigmento se agrega después de mezclar la cal. El pigmento seco, primero se rocía con un poco de agua, se mezcla completamente y entonces se añade a la mezcla.

Aplicación

El primer paso del proceso es comprobar la absorción del sustrato. El tadelakt se aplicaba tradicionalmente en sustratos altamente absorbentes como paredes gruesas de tierra, cal o cemento. Para reducir la succión, se lanza una pequeña cantidad de agua a la superficie. Para la aplicación a gran escala, se aplica una pequeña cantidad de material en la pared para garantizar que el fondo absorba a una velocidad adecuada. El Tadelakt se aplica en varias capas delgadas hasta un espesor final de aproximadamente 4-6 mm. La paleta de albañil se utiliza para aplicar, y el fratás de madera se utiliza como una superficie para sujetar el material. Alternativamente, el fratás de madera se puede usar como una llana y entonces usar la paleta para colocar el material en el fratás.

Durante la aplicación, se tiene especial cuidado en allanar bien la superficie de manera uniforme. Después de un corto tiempo, el fratás de madera se frota sobre la superficie para rellenar y alisar. Los puntos altos se muelen y los puntos bajos se rellenan. Otro aspecto importante de este paso es aplastar todos los granos de arena más grandes y traer los finos a la superficie. El siguiente paso es suavizar la superficie del Tadelakt con la paleta de albañil, una vez que el grosor del enlucido se ha secado justo lo suficiente para poder trabajar la superficie. Nuevamente, se puede rociar un poco de agua si la superficie está demasiado seca. También se puede utilizar una espátula de plástico para suavizar la superficie.

Ryan Chivers puliendo con el "galet"
Después de un período adicional de secado, el Tadelakt está listo para ser pulido con la piedra. Este proceso puede empezar cuando la superficie es apenas móvil. El pulido debe continuar hasta que la superficie está completamente seca y hasta que se logre una superficie lisa. En este punto, cualquier orificio pequeño o imperfección puede rellenarse con la paleta o la espátula de plástico y luego nuevamente frotar suavemente con la piedra. Cuando se completa el pulido de la piedra, y la superficie se ha secado con una ligera adherencia, se pule con la espátula de plástico. Esto se hace horizontalmente, luego verticalmente. El plástico le da a la superficie un alto brillo y es el paso final hasta que el jabón se aplique al día siguiente.

El Tadelakt se deja secar durante 12 horas o más, generalmente durante la noche. Entonces se cubre la superficie completamente con agua jabonosa y se pule inmediatamente con la piedra. En este punto, se utiliza una presión firme para consolidar la superficie cuando se pule con la piedra. Después de que se haya pulido toda la superficie, y el jabón haya penetrado hacia dentro, se pasa un paño suave y seco para limpiar el exceso de jabón. Es común aplicar varias capas de agua jabonosa con un pincel los días posteriores de la aplicación. Este paso ayuda al curado y a la carbonatación y agrega una capa de brillo al Tadelakt. También es común que se aplique un recubrimiento de cera después de un período de carbonatación de 30 días.

Conclusiones Propias


Gran parte del entusiasmo que rodea al Tadelakt no proviene solamente de su belleza intrínseca, sino también de sus características de impermeabilidad. Siempre advierto a mis compañeros de que Tadelakt es una capa de enlucido y podría no ser impermeable por sí misma. Más bien, forma la última superficie expuesta de un sistema impermeable. En Marruecos, e incluso en la UE, los bloques de terracota, ladrillo o cemento con una capa de cal hidráulica o cemento podrían ser un soporte típico. Sin embargo, en las construcciones de estructura de madera, tan comunes en los Estados Unidos, es importante asegurarse de que la superficie a aplicar sea segura, sin flexión ni movimiento y que el sustrato sea el adecuado. Alterntivamente, se pueden usar tablas de cemento o listón de metal como substratos para la aplicación del Tadelakt.

Solamente puedo decir cosas positivas sobre el "Savon noir" marroquí, el jabón negro. Es un jabón hecho con aceite de oliva natural y que se vende a granel en los bazares, se usa para la higiene personal (mi champú) y también para todo tipo de limpieza del hogar. Se presenta como una pasta espesa, pero se emulsiona fácilmente en agua si se mezcla y se deja reposar durante la noche. Como Ryan menciona, es muy importante aplicar el jabón antes de que el Tadelakt comience a carbonatarse. La acción de la piedra frotando el jabón en el Tadelakt impregna profundamente el enlucido, el jabón no forma una película superficial como la cera. La alcalinidad de la cal reacciona químicamente con el jabón para formar otro mineral, el estearato de calcio. La superficie se vuelve altamente resistente al agua líquida, resistente a los arañazos y más dura de lo que normalmente es un acabado de cal, y aún así todavía sigue siendo permeable al vapor.


Escrito por Patrick Webb  y Ryan Chivers
Traducido por Anna Castilla Vila 

Friday, December 28, 2018

The Romantic Craftsman


Rebellious Slave, Michelangelo
To start off with, allow me to disabuse some of you of the notion that what follows is a discussion of craftsmen who work in a particular style, within a certain historical era. What concerns us here is the disposition of the majority of craftsmen throughout history towards the world, one characterised by intuition and familiarity, drawn towards life and nature, uniquely expressive of the sublime, melancholic and sentimental. Out of practical necessity we are obliged to consider the Romantic in contrast with what has greatly diminished and largely supplanted it throughout global civilisation: the Enlightenment, a predominantly philosophical world view that first took root some two millennia in ancient Greece before it gradually came to fully dominate the cultural outlook and organisation of society in 18th century Western Europe.

Separation vs Detachment

A craftsman benefits from a bit of separation from his craft. This separation can be thought of in a couple ways. There is the physical, bodily separation from his medium be it stone, plaster, timber, etc. At times we're chastised for anthropomorphising, attributing human qualities to material. However, I'd contend this is a reverberative process, we likewise begin to attribute material qualities to ourselves such as warmth, flexibility, endurance: an iron will, the steadfastness of an oak, a mind set in stone to name but a few examples. In the process of mastery, the craftsman is increasing drawn towards his medium, something akin to falling in love or perhaps even being seduced. There develops true affection and tender care as between lovers, prolonged separation from one's craft results in a sense of loss and longing.

In addition to the corporeal sense of loss the craftsman will often experience a nostalgia, literally the "pain of return" after a separation long in time and far in place. Such separation creates the possibility of empathy, to "feel inside" and sympathy, to "suffer together with" the other. The human feeling that naturally arises when in the presence of the caring, loving hands of our fellowman that time and the elements have slowly retaken. There was life there perhaps greatness even; the loss is not felt to be trivial. Nevertheless, there is potential healing for the pain of separation and possibility of reunion, if only in part. In one aspect this is what it means to be a traditional craftsman, to portray, to dramatise, to live the experience of culture. His relation to the past is not as an idea, memory or representation but much deeper and less abstract. Craft is the very embodiment of the past, acting it out in the present. A disposition to the world willing to take the past, present and future into account simultaneously.



The aforementioned sense of separation can be contrasted with detachment. Detachment seeks to establish a context of no context. It's surface, formal, picturesque rejecting the depth and complexity of time, place or embodiment. Such reductive simplicity serves instrumental utility. There is a certain  self-satisfaction that the detached view is a pure one, that it alone can capture the thing in itself, that it "knows", just the facts devoid of any motive force. In place of empathy there is analysis, a process of objectification that reduces experience to concept, concept to words, words to object. And an object is something quite detached from you, something to be grasped, dominated, exploited. In place of the generational, accretion of embodied wisdom typical of traditional craft, the detached Enlightenment view (a term itself dripping in smugness) became the philosophical grounds for the Industrial Revolution. Initially the formal, surface elements of traditional architecture were retained by industry; however, within a couple of generations that too was discarded as Modern architecture came to align fully with the Modern philosophy. Marked by disjunction and resulting cultural alienation, we now largely inhabit a craft-less built environment of no time, of no place, machined forms devoid of any evidence of the human touch.

Verification vs Truth

Verification, quite literally the "making of truth", a process of becoming. One of the earliest of the Greek philosophers was Heraclitus, who was in my view far more insightful and profound than subsequent philosophers on this and many other principles. He illustrated the "truth" of the river as being the process of flux and continual becoming just as what makes you as a living, thinking human being is not constancy rather the very process of metabolism and perpetual change. Steady states, "TRUTHS" are dead things, objects if you will. The process of verification has far more to do with pattern recognition and negotiation than any universality. This process appears to occur right down to the subatomic level as far as contemporary science can reveal. We may classify patterns such as Hydrogen as objects for simplification, instrumental tool-like use; however, there are unlikely to be e.g. two atoms of Hydrogen in the universe that are "exactly" the same. In fact, the individual atom of Hydrogen is a process of flux, it itself doesn't remain exactly the same rather being typified by constant change. Science has been able to progress because it has bit by bit left this Enlightenment materialism behind in favour of seeing reality as an interconnected web of pattern and process. The universe is not...rather it is becoming. How Romantic of them!

Traditional craft exists within such a living context. It is marked by adaptability: to the human body, to the local terrain, to the local climate, to the culture in which it is embedded. Craft is not founded upon an axiomatic definition of what is true, rather there is a shifting orientation towards provisional truth generated from a receptive, vigilant attention to what is, in favour of a Utopian certainty of what we might wish to be. Thus craft is a way of being in the world, a journey of discovery voluntarily moulded by reality's constraints. The craftsman's revealed truth becomes as an emergent property of his own uniqueness in body, place and time as it integrates with the particularities of nature, material and culture.

By contrast, the Enlightenment temperament seeks to impose the freedom, equality and certainty of its systematised ideological constructs upon the very processes of life characterised by constraint, particularity and dynamic change. Ironically it acts far more "picturesque" than the so-called Romantics it derides, attempting to frame a view of an ideal, decontextualised moment outside of time and space. Plainly stated, Modernism is far more otherworldly, ephemeral and fantastical than the Romantics ever were, characterised by this conceptual orientation towards fixity (and death) rather than viscerally engaging with the world as it becomes.

Authentic vs Automatic

Now might be a good time to bring up the origin of the word "Romantic". Obviously, it hearkens back to Ancient Rome; however, somewhat surprisingly not to Classical or Imperial Rome. Romantic was an adjective referring to Vulgar Latin and the Roman vernacular more generally. Far removed from the nobility and palace intrigues, Romantic is a plebeian term, local folks who mostly did for themselves, quite literally the meaning of authentic, "doing oneself". Traditional craftsmen certainly embody such a spirit of authenticity as well as anyone. And by embody I mean the expertise they exhibit is contained in the physical body. It's "know how" that can be displayed rather than "know what" to be written down or programmed. Likewise craft knowledge is familiar in the sense of how one might know a friend, family member or lover as opposed to being familiar or overly familiar in the other sense, that which is known for purpose, rote and usual (for use),

3D print of Rebellious Slave
However, authoritarian types don't care for it one bit when the folk aren't entirely passive and dependent on them. And they tend to get very irritated when they encounter things they don't know, can't grasp or control. One reactionary tactic is to verbally abuse those outside control. So it is that the work of craftsmen is often derided as being provincial, pastiche, anachronistic, picturesque and almost comically...elitist and inauthentic by the self appointed arbiters of taste in academia and the media.

Nevertheless there are far more reliable methods of excising conformity, principal among them: Automation, that is to say "self making". Automation might first call to mind the industrial robots of high technological factory production and certainly that would qualify. However, more broadly speaking we can think of automation as the imposition of enclosed systems be they mechanical, digital, state or corporate bureaucracies, municipal codes, etc. A moment's reflection will reveal that from cradle to grave almost every function of individual human life is subject to automation: food, clothes, shelter, medicine, education, governance, transportation to name a few.

There is a legacy awaiting this Enlightenment world view: all of its systems will fail. Not because Romantic craftsmen like myself are hoping for that, rebelling against them or otherwise fomenting trouble (heaven knows we're just trying to carve out a little slice of another way of being in the world, not having the stomach to swallow the fantasy.) No, it's because static systems always fail. They only know what they know...what they know is to exploit. It's a self-contained knowledge based on willful ignorance of the dynamic reality of nature. Yet excessive order unleashes the forces of chaos. Instinctively we all know this, we've just been indoctrinated to hold something like an objective view...


Contributed by Patrick Webb

Tuesday, December 25, 2018

Hopes and Dreams for the Traditional Plastering Craft


The close of a year is always a good time for a bit of reflection. Certainly 2018 held a good many things for me to be encouraged by, a number of traditional plaster projects that I feel blessed to have been a part of. At the outset of the year was the design, construction and on site assembly of a tessellated Islamic dome for a small, private chapel. Although Islamic design has been an interest and private study of mine for many years, this was the first significant project I had the privilege of realising with my good friend Rob Wozniak of Preservation Works.

This was quickly followed by another collaboration between Rob and I in the spring, the manufacture and installation of large fibrous plaster coves resting above a British Palladian Ionic entablature visually supported by bespoke Ionic pilaster capitals for the Veritas School, a Classical Christian Academy in Richmond, VA. The architectural firm Glavé & Holmes invited us into the design development process and brought us in to speak with their staff more broadly on traditional plaster and heritage masonry means, methods and appropriate uses in contemporary architectural specification.

Currently I'm about half way through a new build, monolithic masonry "Charleston Single" in the historic district of Charleston, South Carolina designed by my good friends, Classically trained and oriented architects Bevan & Liberatos. Chris and Jenny specified the many finely articulated exterior mouldings they designed to be run in Natural Cement, very much in keeping with the 19th and early 20th century local tradition. Even while work is progressing, we've become a regular feature of the horse drawn carriage tours, a testament that 'you can in fact build them like you used to!'

The upcoming year, 2019 looks every bit as busy. One never knows (or should try forcefully to determine) what the future has in store; that being said, I've a general direction so here are a few potential projects, hopes and dreams I'm excited about.

Rebuild the Original Penn Station

The destruction of the McKim Mead & White masterpiece in 1963 sparked the historic preservation movement in the US, resulting in Federal legislation protecting historic structures and districts as well as funding for university programmes in Historic Preservation. The claustrophobic station that replaced it and the universally detested Madison Square Garden complex are showing their age and plans are underway for a complete overhaul of the site. There is an organised movement underway gaining public support and momentum to rebuild Penn Station according to the original drawings with updates for current building codes and reasonable accommodation of technological advances. One of the strenuous objectives is that there is no one capable of doing that type of work anymore. My offer to the movement is to allow myself and a small team to build a full scale plaster mockup of i.e., the Corinthian entablature, capital and a section of the coffered vault as a public art display in Grand Central station where nearly a million daily commuters with their smartphones and social media presence can engage with the grandeur of the design and lay that argument to rest. The initial response has been favourable, fingers crossed on realising that dream!

Notre Dame School of Architecture

Notre Dame has the only full-time programme in the world, at both the Undergraduate and Graduate level, concentrated on the teaching of Classical Architecture. For the past couple of years I've been invited to conduct hands on plaster workshops as part of a growing initiative to incorporate traditional craft into the curricula. Recently dedicated is an entirely new campus just for the school of architecture, to be occupied in 2019. The interior rooms are essentially unadorned boxes or perhaps a better way of thinking about it: blank canvases. I've pitched the idea of a faculty research project that would work with advanced students to complete the interior design of a given room as an exemplar of a Classical architectural tradition. The design can then be easily mocked up in plaster and together with the drawings be put on display as a possibility that could be made a reality, a fund-able opportunity. One could imagine over the course of 10 or 20 years, the halls and classrooms of Notre Dame serving as models of Greek, Roman, Renaissance and British Palladian design and craftsmanship. Students and faculty designing the very environment that they will inhabit, steward and pass on as a gift to subsequent generations. Similar conversations for smaller scale initiatives have been had with INTBAU and The Center for Traditional Craft in Savannah, GA. This might be more than a dream, perhaps an approach to Classical architectural and traditional craft education to be hopeful about!

L'amphithéâtre d'honneur de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts

Never Stop Learning...or Sharing

Earlier in the year I wrote about the Guild and the recent gathering in Ireland. Personally, I've applied for membership and this year hope to join Philip Gaches and other Masters of the Guild on heritage projects so that I can continue to improve my own skills and pass on that knowledge to my colleagues back home. The next gathering in 2019 is to be held in Scotland. There has been a real interest in the Guild here in North America and I'm very hopeful that we can bring a contingent from the US and Canada over to discuss the possibility of greater connection and exchange with our highly experienced colleagues across the pond.

Speaking of continued learning and growth, I intend to buckle down with further study and drawing of architectural ornamentation at the Academy of Classical Design in the spring. This past summer we held our first week long short programme on ornamentation and determined that future programmes would benefit from more time, perhaps 4-6 weeks. So there is some work in expanding and modifying the curricula to that end.

Courtesy of Scott Nelson


The most effective way to share traditional craft is to roll one's sleeves up and get to work with one's colleagues. However, there is a supplemental place for sharing with even those inside but particularly outside the craft: writing and other forms of media. Currently, I've been gathering more research for further essays in my A Craftsman's Philosophy series. Next up are The Romantic Craftsman that, rather than discuss a style, takes up a traditional craftsman's general disposition towards the world. That should be quickly followed by The Ethical Craftsman which will break down into Aesthetics, the role of discrimination and judgement in how things ought to appeal to the senses as well as Morality, how ought we be disposed or act towards our fellowman in the process of making. Aside from the long running series in Walls & Ceilings and Traditional Building magazines, I have essays being contributed to the The Journal of the Building Lime Forum and Useful and Beautiful, the biannual magazine of the the William Morris Society in the United States.

Additionally, I've begun to record and publish audio readings of my essays in additions to lectures and discussions. I just need a few more followers before I'm allowed to change the name to 'A Craftsman's Philosophy' so I'd be much obliged if you consider following my YouTube channel!

Finally, I'm very excited to be having a number of my essays translated into Spanish and French. The first French translation should be coming at the beginning of the new year whereas several essays have already been translated into Spanish: http://realfinishes.blogspot.com/search/label/Espanol

Well, that's all I have for now. Looking forward to seeing, working and conversing with many of you in 2019!


Contributed by Patrick Webb

Saturday, December 8, 2018

Estuco Mármol


Foto por Walter Cipriani
La máxima expresión artística creada por los yeseros fué perdida y redescubierta. Sin embargo,  durante los últimos dos milenios, el estuco mármol o scagliola no ha dejado de fascinar ni de  perder su misterio. Mitad escultura y mitad ciencia. El proceso sofisticado que da luz al Estuco  mármol exige una mente enfocada y la precisión de un químico, las manos de un yesero  experimentado y el ojo sutil y delicado de un artista.

Historia

El estuco mármol surge del resultado de una secuencia meticulosamente programada de: teñido,  mezcla y arreglo de la escayola para imitar el mármol. Los arqueólogos han descubierto que los  romanos y los egipcios ya empleaban estos métodos para imitar el mármol en yeso, pero fueron  olvidados. No obstante, fue en el Renacimiento italiano del siglo XVI, que los enfoques  contemporáneos del estuco mármol fueron concebidos y perfeccionados para efectuar incrustaciones  complicadas en las superficies de los muebles.

En el renacimiento temprano, muchos de los mármoles deseados eran escasos o sehabían agotado. El estuco mármol podía imitar tales mármoles, así como crear colores y patrones nuevos que no existían en la naturaleza. El uso del estuco mármol pronto se expandió para moldear ornamentos, columnas y hasta paredes enteras. 

El uso del estuco mármol se expandió por toda Europa continental y, finalmente, en Gran Bretaña en el siglo XVIII. Los usos destacados del estuco Mármol Scagliola en Inglaterra incluyen columnas y pilastros en el Palacio de Buckingham y en la Casa Syon de Robert Adam. Hubo un avance significativo en la tecnología del yeso a mediados del siglo XIX con la llegada del cemento de Keen. Keen allanó el camino para un nuevo método para producir Scagliola llamado Marezzo, conocido en los Estados Unidos como Scagliola estadounidense debido a su fácil aceptación y su uso prominente desde mediados de 1800 hasta la Gran Depresión.

Existen innumerables recetas, antiguas y contemporáneas, en todos los casos los ingredientes y procesos de mezcla para la producción del estuco mármol son secretos y patentados. Pero intentemos, al menos parcialmente, retirar la cortina de humo de este secreto, con una explicación básica de cómo funciona la elaboración de estuco mármol.

Proceso de elaboración

El estuco mármol se puede realizar in situ o en una mesa de trabajo. Cuando el trabajo se realiza in situ, requiere varias precauciones en la preparación del sustrato. En todos los casos, todo debe de estar limpio, seco y a una temperatura cálida.

Se usa un yeso fino de alta calidad como material base. En el mismo día, se prepara un pegamento alto en Colágeno, por ejemplo el que se obtiene con la piel del conejo o con cola de pescado. Este pegamento actúa como retardante de secado y aporta más fuerza al yeso. Los pigmentos minerales en seco se pueden introducir directamente a la masa, mezclados en seco con el yeso o emulsionados, dependiendo del acabado deseado. Ingredientes opcionales usados como relleno incluyen la tiza molida o la selenita (un tipo de yeso molido), y el aceite de linaza como complemento del pegamento retardante y para ayudar a la trabajabilidad, también se le pueden añadir trocitos de mármol para crear efectos decorativos.

Así como el panadero trabaja con harina agua y levadura, el artesano amasa el yeso con agua y pegamento hasta hacer una masa firme. La mejor manera de lograrlo es formando un anillo de yeso seco que rodea un "castillo" central de yeso. El "foso" se llena con agua con cola y comienza el proceso de corte y amasado.

A través de una serie de cortes, la adición de pigmentos, el plegado y la unión de toda la masa, se mezclan y se reservan como grandes bolas colocadas en proporciones y disposiciones que logran el resultado deseado: un efecto de mármol verdadero o una creación fantasiosa. Dependiendo del resultado deseado, a partir de la mezcla inicial, las lechadas de colores y otras preparaciones se reservan para efectos decorativos. Gran parte de la artesanía se encuentra en un proceso de ingeniería inversa mental. Uno concebir el resultado deseado, tener todos los materiales a mano y tomar medidas sistemáticamente para lograr el efecto.

Por lo general, el yeso se construye con un espesor de entre 12 y 15 mm dejando unos 3 mm para cortar la superficie. Una vez que el material ha alcanzado un conjunto inicial, se puede cepillar con una herramienta de corte adecuada, como un Berthelet o navaja francesa, eliminando el exceso de 3mm para obtener una superficie plana. En este punto, el material aún es maleable y se puede permitir que cure como un panel plano. Alternativamente, las rebanadas de Scagliola se pueden presionar en un molde o directamente sobre un sustrato de yeso incrustado in situ. Para trabajos ornamentales como balaustres, urnas y ejes de columnas, el estuco mármol puede envolverse alrededor de una base adecuada y girarse en un torno.


Una vez que se ha permitido que el estuco mármol fragüe y seque naturalmente, se puede empezar el trabajo de pulido. Tradicionalmente, después de cortar el estuco mármol se empleaban piedras pómez y esponjas húmedas para suavizar el trabajo.

El alisado final y el pulido se lograron históricamente con Water of Ayr, una piedra de serpiente natural de Escocia, conocida principalmente como una herramienta de afilado para el pulido de cuchillas de afeitar. Las técnicas modernas de pulido logran un resultado similar con un papel de lija húmedo / seco de grano cada vez más fino. La superficie terminada se puede frotar con aceite de linaza para aumentar el brillo, la dureza y para añadir una medida de protección contra las manchas.

La técnica Marezzo o Scagliola americana fue una verdadera innovación que siguió una metodología distinta. No es necesario cortar la superficie, ya que el veteado y la coloración se realizan en la cara del molde en una capa fina para las piezas ornamentales. El trabajo de panel plano se realiza típicamente en vidrio grueso para que los patrones creados se vean desde abajo.

La mezcla de yeso Marezzo se basa en el cemento Keen, un cemento de yeso de fraguado lento que no requiere el uso de retardantes o endurecedores. Se usan hilos de seda para crear vetas y los tintes minerales secos se pueden usar para proporcionar color.

Conclusión

La Scagliola o Estuco Mármol ha disfrutado de una rica historia que adorna muchas de las obras de arquitectura más prestigiosas de Europa, desde el Renacimiento hasta el Neoclásico. Del mismo modo, en los Estados Unidos, Marezzo ocupó un lugar destacado en muchos de los triunfos arquitectónicos del siglo XIX y aún puede ser admirado en las grandes entradas de juzgados, capitolios estatales, estaciones de ferrocarril y hoteles elegantes en todo el país.


Escrito por Patrick Webb  y Sloan Houser.
Traducido por Anna Castilla Vila